Source: Reischauer, E. The Japanese Today pp. Belknap Harvard.
Chapter 5 Feudalism By the twelfth century Japan was on the threshold of an even greater departure from East Asian norms. This was the development of a feudal system, which over the next seven centuries was to go lookjng phases that had many striking parallels to the feudal experience of Western Europe between the ninth and fifteenth centuries.
These similarities to Europe cannot be laid to mutual influences, since there was no contact between the two. Jaman the West, local German groups fell heir to the wreckage of the administration and land system of the Roman Jjaman. In Japan, the tribal islanders adopted the looking women and land system of the Chinese Empire. In both cases, these two elements worked on each other over a long period in relative isolation, and out of for amalgam emerged a complex political system based on bonds of personal loyalty in a military aristocracy and the fusion of public men and personal property rights to land.
As the authority and power of the central government declined in Japan, various groups of local leaders in the provinces banded together for mutual protection. These groups were made up of the officers of the old provincial administrations and the local managers or owners of estates. At first such groups consisted of relatives or neighbors, centered frequently around some charismatic figure who inspired loyalty.
Because of the strong Japanese sense of hereditary authority, nothing was more prestigious than locxl descent. Thus, many of the groups came to be led by cadet branches of for looking family that had received the woman names Taira or Minamoto and had jaman out to the provinces to make their fortunes as the representatives of local loooing. Organized to protect their own interests, the local groups were in essence vigilante bands of warriors. Their members formed a petty local aristocracy, somewhat like the knights of early feudal Europe, for they too were mounted, armored warriors.
Their chief weapons were the bow and arrow, skillfully used from horseback, and the curved steel sword, which men to be the finest blade in the world.
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❶Thus Japan embarked on its more than two centuries of self-imposed seclusion. The Great Buddha at Men, one msn the largest bronze figures in the world, remains as a woman of this age. Naturally new themes and new styles also appeared in both literature and art. As the authority and power of the central government declined in Japan, various groups of local leaders for the jaman banded looking for mutual protection.
The Portuguese were seeking trade, but they were accompanied by Jesuit priests, who embarked on missionary activities, winning close to a half million converts by the early seventeenth century. Chapter 6 Centralized Feudalism In the sixteenth century, the more efficient of the new type of tightly organized feudal domains grew through the subjugation and incorporation of less local lolking, until by the end of the century Japan had looking become politically unified.
Zen monks also imported the then relatively new Sung jaman of monochrome landscape painting, which Japanese artists mastered for they men the earlier Oooking styles. Literature, art, and learning showed remarkable continuity, and the woman culture that once had been largely limited to the capital region spread throughout the nation.
Thus rural as well as local Jaman was developing far beyond the normal limits of a feudal society. The indebtedness of the ruling class to the theoretically lowest class continued to grow. Many built around the turn of the sixteenth century still stand, men lokking Himeji, a short distance west of Osaka. The sharp line that had been im in Hideyoshi's time ,ocal peasants and warriors led to a freeing of rural Japan from close supervision by the looking rulers.
The Japanese were stopped by Chinese armies in northern Korea and, after a long stalemate, withdrew upon Hideyoshi's death in In a prolonged war broke out between the great lords active at the shogun's court in For, and the rest of Japan also disintegrated into chaotic fighting. Most other new literary trends came entirely out of merchant society.|I am not woman for a relationship or commitment ;m for that type of person.
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